Israel seized east Jerusalem in 1967 and later annexed it, in a move not recognised by most of the worldwide community.
It called on the global community to "take urgent and immediate action to deter the repeated attacks of the Israeli enemy against the brotherly Palestinian people and Al-Aqsa Mosque", stressing "the need to confront the continued Israeli intransigence and stop the Israeli settlement and displacement activities in the occupied city of Jerusalem".
The fresh violence, a day after more than 200 people were wounded at the mosque, prompted global calls for an end to the violence. On Monday, an Israeli court is expected to issue a verdict on the planned evictions in Sheikh Jarrah.
We will respond with a heavy hand to all violent disturbances, riots and attacks on our forces, it said in a statement late Friday. Police patrols fired stun grenades as they moved through the area, and a police truck periodically fired a water cannon.
According to the Israeli police, 17 officers were injured, about half of them needing treatment in hospital.
Israeli police have attacked Muslim worshippers inside the Al Aqsa Mosque in occupied East Jerusalem's Old City as weeks-long tensions between Israel and the Palestinians over Jerusalem soared again.
There was initially no reaction from the Israeli government.
"Israel is acting responsibly to ensure respect for law and order in Jerusalem while allowing freedom of worship", he said in a meeting of security officials.More news: India to take back illegal United Kingdom migrants in return for professional visas
"Shame on Israel and those who keep silent in the face of disgraceful attacks", Turkish Presidential Spokesman Ibrahim Kalin said on Twitter late on Friday. Protesters blamed police for escalating the situation, according to media reports and social media.
In recent days, protests have grown over Israel's threatened eviction in Sheikh Jarrah of dozens of Palestinians embroiled in a long legal battle with Israeli settlers trying to acquire property in the neighborhood.
Instead, hundreds marched on highways leading to the city.
Some 70,000 worshippers had attended the final midday Friday prayers of Ramadan at Al-Aqsa, the Islamic endowment that oversees the site said.
Hamas, which rules the Gaza Strip and opposes Israel's existence, has called for a new intifada, or uprising.
Outside the Damascus Gate entrance to Jerusalem's Old City, Palestinians set fire to a barricade before police on horseback dispersed the protesters.
The European Union called on local leaders "to act urgently to de-escalate the current tensions", saying "violence and incitement are unacceptable and the perpetrators on all sides must be held accountable".
Police violence against Palestinians in #SheikhJarrah who only want to remain in the homes they've lived in for generations is state-sponsored persecution.More news: Ontario reports fewest new COVID-19 cases in over a month
"As we have consistently said, it is critical to avoid unilateral steps that exacerbate tensions or take us further away from peace, this includes evictions, settlement activity, and home demolitions", the spokesperson added.
The EU's top diplomat, Josep Borrell, also called for a de-escalation in tensions.
The foreign ministers of Germany, the UK, France, Spain, and Italy on Thursday called on Israel to stop the construction of illegal settlements in occupied Palestinian territories.
Israel is facing growing global scrutiny over the pending evictions, which the United Nations on Friday said could be a "war crime".
Neighboring Jordan, which made peace with Israel in 1994 and is the custodian of Muslim holy sites in Jerusalem, has also condemned Israel's actions, as has the Gulf kingdom of Bahrain, which normalized relations with Israel a year ago in a USA -brokered deal.
Israel also drew criticism from Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates, two countries that signed normalisation accords with the Jewish state previous year.
Sunday night is also the start of Jerusalem Day, a national holiday in which Israel celebrates its annexation of east Jerusalem and religious nationalists hold parades and other celebrations in the city.More news: NY to Ease Capacity Restrictions on Broadway Beginning May 19