A woman holds a small bottle labeled with a "Vaccine Covid-19" sticker and a medical syringe in this illustration taken April 10, 2020. Volunteers receive either a vaccine or a placebo injected at two points 28 days apart.
Early results show that the vaccine has produced an immune response during Phase II/III trials.More news: Coronavirus: UK extends quarantine for patients
The fact that the vaccine prevented the virus from replicating in the nose is seen as particularly crucial in preventing it from being transmitted onwards to others.
"The protocol designed by Serum proposed a phase II/III trial in around 1,600 participants", said a senior government official.
Johnson & Johnson on Thursday kicked off US human safety trials for its COVID-19 vaccine after releasing details of a study in monkeys that showed its best-performing vaccine candidate offered strong protection in a single dose.
Industry analysts said Pfizer and BioNTech's US$2 billion deal to cover 50 million patients, which is contingent on an approvable product, would likely pressure other manufacturers to set similar prices.More news: Ryan Reynolds offers $5000 reward for return of woman's teddy bear
The vaccine candidate, a collaboration between Pfizer and BioNTech, "introduces into the body the genetic instructions for the cell to make a specific protein - in this case a SARS-CoV-2 protein - which is meant to stimulate an immune response", she said.
Another vaccine candidate from AstraZeneca plc's (NYSE: AZN) appears to be priced around $3 to $4 per dose, under its agreements with the governments of the Netherlands, Germany, France, and Italy, according to an analyst note from SVB Leerink's Geoffrey Porges.
"We have 20 vaccines in clinical trials, (so) we can be pretty confident that at least two of those will work", he said.
The New York Times vaccine tracker also includes a Phase-3 trial by Murdoch Children's Research Institute in Australia to evaluate the efficacy of a Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine, originally developed as a protection against tuberculosis, to protect against COVID-19.More news: NCAA: Student-Athletes May Wear Social Justice Patches, Statements On Uniform Backs
During the trial - a phase 1 clinical trial sponsored by NIAID - the macaques were exposed to SARS-CoV-2 four weeks after their second injection.