Tottenham's Dele Alli misses out, with Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain recalled after missing last month's squad as he continued to recover from a serious knee injury.
Leicester boss Brendan Rodgers defended his player while Southgate said Maddison would have learned there was an increased spotlight on him.
According to Squawka, the stars made the list of squad alongside their Chelsea teammates Hudson-Odoi, Mason Mount, and Rose Barkley.More news: Oil unchanged after overnight losses amid caution over trade talks
Southgate's men then face Kosovo in Pristina on Sunday 17 November (5pm).
Oxlade-Chamberlain has scored four goals in his past four games for Liverpool, including the victor in Tuesday's 2-1 Champions League victory over Genk.
"The squad itself is a little bit larger than normal, we've got a few injury doubts, so we've named a slightly extended squad".
"He's still on his way back, of course - he's a young player so he's still learning and improving but in the games he's played, you can see his level and he's pushing those players in the wide positions to start in the team".More news: Police remove more than 1600 migrants from Paris tent camps
England needs a single point to qualify for next summer's tournament with the final to be held at Wembley Stadium.
Chelsea's Callum Hudson-Odoi, who has two caps, is promoted back from the under-21 squad following his return from the Achilles injury he suffered at the end of last season.More news: Liverpool vs Genk player ratings: Oxlade-Chamberlain stays hot