Despite his father being English and Archer himself holding a British passport, the 24-year-old would have missed the World Cup prior to a change in the European Central Bank eligibility regulations in December that reduced the residency period from seven years down to three, bringing it in line with the ICC.
"I'm ready, " said Archer, who has made his name in Twenty20 cricket, notably with Rajasthan Royals in the IPL.
Archer can bowl at over 90mph, as well as offer quick runs with the bat.More news: Have Imran Khan and Avantika Malik parted ways due to irreconcilable differences?
England will take on Australia and Afghanistan in the warm-up matches before the World Cup on May 25 and 27.
Born in Barbados to a British father, right-arm fast bowler Archer has been named in the squad despite having only played in three one day internationals for England.
Willey reacted to being dropped by tweeting: "What can I say, I'm absolutely gutted".
Adil Rashid is included despite selector Ed Smith confirming the Yorkshire leg-spinner is carrying a minor shoulder injury.More news: Netflix "Black Mirror" Drop Trailers For Season 5 Episodes
It was the latest nadir in the storied and abysmal history of England's World Cup efforts.
England reduced their qualification period from seven years to three, a move they insisted was exclusively to bring them into line with the rest of the world rather than advance the selection of paceman Archer - whose father is English. Coach Trevor Bayliss admitted Dawson's slow left-arm spin is more reliable and a strong show in leading Hampshire to the English One-Day Cup final pushed him over the line.
The third and final adjustment from the initial squad became a necessity when Alex Hales was discarded after failing two Tests for recreational drugs. Top-order batsman James Vince was added in as his replacement before the Pakistan series and holds his place.
Top-ranked team England, who open the tournament against South Africa at The Oval, have never won a global 50-over trophy.More news: Warning issued for High Level residents as wildfire season begins in Alberta
Full England squad: Eoin Morgan (capt, Middlesex), Moeen Ali (Worcestershire), Jofra Archer (Sussex), Jonny Bairstow (Yorkshire), Jos Buttler (Lancashire, wk), Tom Curran (Surrey), Liam Dawson (Hampshire), Liam Plunkett (Surrey), Adil Rashid (Yorkshire), Joe Root (Yorkshire), Jason Roy (Surrey), Ben Stokes (Durham), James Vince (Hampshire), Chris Woakes (Warwickshire), Mark Wood (Durham).