Earlier on Monday, Beijing slapped punitive measures on Washington in retaliation for the latter's backing of the widespread ongoing protests in Hong Kong, announcing sanctions on NGOs and suspending visits by U.S. warships and aircraft.
A United Nations (UN) human rights panel alleges that two million Uighurs have been forced into "political camps for indoctrination" in the western Xinjiang autonomous region, which is home to about 10 million Uighurs.
Bill would have to be approved again by the Senate before being sent to Trump. The texts must be reconciled into one bill for Trump's signature.
Passing in a 407 to 1 vote, the House version of the bill amends an earlier Senate bill to place restrictions on the export of devices that could be used for surveillance of the Muslim Uighur group or restrict their communications.
Democratic House Leader Nancy Pelosi called China's treatment of the Uighurs "an outrage to the collective conscience of the world".
Among other provisions, the bill requires the president to submit to Congress within 120 days a list of senior Chinese government officials guilty of human rights abuses against Uighurs in Xianjiang or elsewhere in China.More news: Boost Mobile Black Friday 2019 Deals List
Stocks were mixed in Asia as investors contemplated the latest developments in China, as well as Trump's move to threaten new levies on France and slap steel tariffs on both Brazil and Argentina.
"We urge the U.S. to immediately correct its mistake, to stop the above bill on Xinjiang from becoming law, to stop using Xinjiang as a way to interfere in China's domestic affairs", said the statement, attributed to the ministry's spokeswoman, Hua Chunying.
The Chinese state-owned tabloid The Global Times quoted experts as saying Beijing will take "strong countermeasures" including releasing an "unreliable entity list" that could sanction and restrict some U.S. entities in the country and impose sanctions on USA officials.
The leak of a cache of classified government documents that details the use of detention camps in Xinjiang has put more pressure on Beijing.
Government papers obtained by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) outlined the need to prevent escape, double lock doors and constantly monitor detainees - even during toilet breaks.
Rights groups and witnesses accuse China of forcibly trying to draw Uighurs away from their Islamic customs and integrate them into the majority Han culture.More news: Google's Larry Page and Sergey Brin stepping down from top roles
China has denied mistreatment at the camps, which Beijing says provide vocational training to help eliminate religious extremism and teach new skills to people of the region.
And it would require the Commerce Department to ban U.S. exports to entities in Xinjiang that are known to be used in the detention or surveillance of Muslim minorities, including facial recognition technology.
"I'm not sure it's the Xinjiang issue being more sensitive than Hong Kong, I think there's a sort of piling on factor here that the Chinese are concerned about", Johnson said.
China's foreign ministry said the bill was "arrogantly discrediting China's efforts to combat terrorism" and seriously interfering in China's internal affairs.
Republican Marco Rubio, a sponsor of the legislation in the US Senate, warned that China's government and Communist Party "is working to systematically wipe out the ethnic and cultural identities" of Uighurs.
China's foreign ministry said it "urged the US".More news: Defiant Mark Zuckerberg defends Facebook policy to allow false ads