Dozens of his supporters protested in central London, after he was imprisoned for nine months for contempt of court.
Police were then pelted with cans and plastic bottles as the group began chanting "we want Tommy out".
The judge said the words he used in the video would have been understood by viewers as "an incitement" to harass the defendants and "gave rise to a real risk the course of justice would be seriously impeded".More news: CDC: Pet supply retailer recalling pig ears due to salmonella outbreak
The activist, whose real name is Stephen Yaxley-Lennon, was found guilty at London's Old Bailey court last week after he filmed defendants during a trial previous year and posted the footage on social media, breaching reporting restrictions on the case.
He was jailed for 13 months after being found in contempt of court on the day of the broadcast and served two months in jail but was freed after the original finding of contempt was overturned by the Court of Appeal in August 2018.
However, Yaxley-Lennon's 90 minute video was streamed while the jury in the second trial was considering its verdict.
Robinson denied any wrongdoing throughout the trial, seemingly unaware of the meaning of contempt of court, which is created to ensure fair criminal trials.More news: Candidate: Woman reporter must be joined by male colleague
Attorney-General Geoffrey Cox was given leave to relitigate the case, however, which he chose to do - resulting in Robinson being reconvicted, despite his defence team's arguments that his behaviour was "not materially different to the behaviour we see outside courts day in and day" from mainstream media reporters.
"Today's sentencing of Yaxley-Lennon serves to illustrate how seriously the courts will take matters of contempt", said Attorney General Geoffrey Cox, the government's chief legal adviser Yaxley-Lennon, who arrived at court wearing a T-shirt emblazoned with the message "Convicted of Journalism" with the words "Britain = North Korea" on the back, was arrested in May past year for making the video recordings and jailed for 13 months later that day.
Contempt of court laws exist to ensure people get fair trials.
TOMMY ROBINSON has been jailed for nine months today after being found guilty of contempt of court. Proceedings become "active" when a suspect is arrested.More news: Trump directs government to revamp care for kidney disease
As well as breaching a reporting restriction, contempt can also be committed in other ways, including by taking photographs in the precincts of the court or attempting to speak to a juror.