Research finds that young minority gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men have high rates of HPV infection, despite the availability of a vaccine that can prevent infection.
My team performed an eight-year study of the women eligible for the Scottish national vaccination and cervical screening programmes.
"These data are consistent with the reduced circulation of high-risk HPV infection in Scotland and confirm that the HPV vaccine should significantly reduce cervical cancer in the next few years".
That low adherence rate not only hampers the protective effects of the vaccine, it also complicates efforts by researchers to study the real-world impact of the vaccine on a population.More news: New York Man Charged With Threatening to Kill Minnesota Representative Ilhan Omar
Those who start the vaccine series later, at ages 15 through 45, should receive three doses, according to CDC guidelines.
The UK-wide vaccination programme launched for girls a decade ago has been so successful that it will be extended to boys this year.
They found that compared with unvaccinated women born in 1988, vaccinated women born in 1995 and 1996 showed an 89% reduction in CIN grade 3 or worse, an 88% reduction in CIN grade 2 or worse, and a 79% reduction in CIN grade 1.
But there are other factors that make Scotland an ideal country to test the value of widespread HPV vaccination, according to lead author Tim Palmer, a pathologist at the University of Edinburgh.More news: Third Day of Angry Protests by Migrants in Greece
"Additionally, we know that those living with HIV are much more likely to be impacted by HPV infection and HPV-related cancers".
That's crucial because a CIN3 growth puts women at their greatest risk of someday developing cervical cancer.
The findings clearly show that the routine HPV vaccination programme for girls aged 12 to 13 has been a resounding success. "Ultimately, the clinical and economic rationale for cervical screening will need to be reviewed".
In the researchers' words, the HPV vaccine has directly led to "a dramatic reduction" in cervical disease. "We must also actively develop, resource, and scale up more effective, feasible and culturally acceptable strategies for cervical screening, such as self-collection of specimens, if we are ever to effectively reduce the global burden of cervical cancer". They compared rates of CIN in women born in 1995-96, who were routinely vaccinated against HPV at the age of 12 or 13, and women born in 1988-90, who were not vaccinated. "However, this point will not be reached in Scotland for at least 25 or 30 years".More news: Baseball legend Bobby Cox has stroke: 'Very concerned'
Currently, in the US, it's estimated there are 12,000 new cases of cervical cancer annually.