Ernesto Valverde started Lionel Messi despite concerns about his match fitness following injury while Sergi Roberto and Arturo Vidal were the other two changes from their last outing against Real Madrid in the Copa Del Rey on Wednesday.
Barcelona have dropped four of the last six points available, failing to capitalise on Atletico Madrid's two defeats and have therefore given Real Madrid reason to believe they can pull off a miraculous comeback in the title race.
Ernesto Valverde's men returned in much more positive mood and Messi curled a 53rd-minute free-kick just over, although the Argentina global was growing increasingly irritated by Bilbao's physical approach to marking him.More news: China trade talks resume tomorrow, United States News & Top Stories
Ousmane Dembele made his recovery from an ankle problem as a 75th-minute substitute, taking the place of Coutinho, whose problems in a Barcelona shirt continued.
Bilbao had the better of the early stages as Yuri Berchiche flashed just wide after a poor pass from Vidal while Markel Susaeta's drive forced the leaping Ter Stegen into an acrobatic save.
Barca enjoyed more control in the second half after homegrown midfielder Carles Alena replaced an erratic Arturo Vidal but exhausted as the game progressed.
Lionel Messi had Barca's best chance as his lob from outside the box hit the top of the crossbar.More news: Bebe Rexha Addresses Size Discrimination at Grammys Following Viral Video
Muniain followed Mikel San Jose off the Bilbao bench just past the hour, before Barcelona made their first adjustment of the match, Carles Alena taking the place of Vidal in the middle of the park.
Substitute Mikel San Jose blasted just wide as the home side finally managed to put together a second-half attack with 65 minutes gone and Williams saw an audacious flick from De Marcos' cross blocked six minutes later.
Ter Stegen was first called into action by a long-range strike from Susaeta, the German flying towards the top right corner to tip the ball over the bar with his left hand.
Ter Stegen made an instinctive save to keep out Williams' close-range shot after he had been picked out in front of goal by Muniain with eight minutes remaining, and although Athletic saw De Marcos dismissed for a second bookable offence in stoppage time, there was to be no late drama.More news: Soundarya Rajinikanth's three most important men in life