Businesses are likely to pass on the higher transport costs to the consumer.
Zimbabwe ditched its own currency after it was ravaged by hyperinflation in 2009 under former president Robert Mugabe, who was ousted by the military to pave way for Mnangagwa in November 2017.
Petrol prices rose from $1.24 a litre to $3.31 (2.89 euros), with diesel up from $1.36 a litre to $3.11 starting Sunday.
"So far the stay-away has been effective", Peter Mutasa, President of the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions, said by phone.
The announcement came after fuel shortages which began in October past year worsened in recent weeks with motorists sometimes spending nights in queues to fuel pumps stretching for kilometres.
"The ZCTU general council resolved to call for a nationwide stay-away with effect from midnight today following the insensitive and provocative increase of the fuel price by the president of Zimbabwe", the confederation, which represents people ranging from journalists to rail workers, said in a Twitter posting. "Workers' salaries have been reduced to nothing and our suffering elevated to another level".More news: Pogba lauds 'freedom' under new Manchester United boss Solksjaer
Nelson Chamisa, the leader of the main opposition Movement for Democratic Change said: "We have a national crisis which is descending into a humanitarian crisis".
Evan Mawarire, a cleric and activist who led anti-government protests in 2016 that shut down major cities, said: "You have cornered us and you leave us no choice".
"Those in government may not admit it but they know in their hearts that they have failed", said Edmore Phiri, a tired-looking motorist who had just spent a second night in a petrol queue in Avondale suburb.
"The fuel prices must come down, we are not going anywhere until they bring it down".
He said the government has introduced new measures to curb a burgeoning parallel market in which fuel was being sold at five times the official price.
Mnangagwa, who took over from long-time ruler Robert Mugabe, has pledged to revive the country's moribund economy and end its worldwide isolation. The demand for fuel intensified this week with the start of the new school term this week.More news: South Africa vs Pakistan
Civil servants are threatening to go on strike over low pay amid disgruntlements over the same issue by doctors, who downed tools for 40 days, and also demanding improved working conditions.
Although this will most certainly have an adverse effect on the way businesses respond to this, Mngangagwa, according to My Zimbabwe News, assured his people that the increase would not see price hikes in the retail environment.
He claimed that some Zimbabweans were taking advantage of the fuel crisis in the country to cause instability.
Announcing the price increases, President Emmerson Mnangagwa said customers were expected to use multiple currencies, including the troubled bond note, to purchase the precious liquid.
"The intention is to create a constant supply of fuel for diplomats and tourists to manage the country's image", said Mugano.More news: Samsung Galaxy M series will compete with Redmi and Realme