German Chancellor Angela Merkel on Monday called the killing a "monstrosity" and vowed to halt German arms exports to Saudi Arabia until the case is cleared up.
Erdogan added he still wanted answers on numerous issues including "who gave orders" to the team and where the corpse is.
The 59-year-old Khashoggi had been living in the United States in self-imposed exile while he wrote columns for The Washington Post that were critical of the Saudi crown prince and Riyadh's involvement in the conflict in Yemen.
"Whitewashing such barbarity will of course injure the conscience of humanity", Mr Erdogan said, going on to call the killing "pre-planned and premeditated".More news: Erdogan Calls For Khashoggi's 'Savage Murderer' To Be Tried In Turkish Court
Saudi Arabia's foreign minister, meanwhile, said Tuesday the investigation into the killing of Khashoggi would produce the truth about what happened and that his country was committed to ensuring "that the investigation is thorough and complete and that the truth is revealed and that those responsible will be held to account".
Riyadh on Saturday finally admitted that Khashoggi had died in the consulate - blaming a brawl - and announced the firing of five top officials and the arrest of 18 others in a probe.
CIA Director Gina Haspel headed to Turkey on Monday to address the investigation of Khashoggi's death, two sources confirmed to ABC News.
"Why has the body of someone who was officially said to be killed not been found yet?" asked Erdogan.
Prior to Jubeir's interview, a senior Saudi official laid out a version that itself contradicted earlier explanations.
Mr Hunt continued: 'The actions Britain and our allies take will depend on two things: firstly the credibility of the final explanation given by Saudi Arabia, and secondly on our confidence that such an appalling episode can not - and will not - be repeated'.More news: Imran Khan leaves for Saudi conference saying Pakistan 'desperate' for loans
Where was Khashoggi when he was killed?
"I think this conference will open the gateways to Asian and Russian investment in the Saudi economy regardless, irrespective if the crisis gets resolved or not", said Ayham Kamel of Eurasia Group.
"To cover up such a savagery would hurt the human conscience", he said.
Of the Saudi Government, she said: "If the allegations are true, and Jamal has been murdered by the errand boys of Mohammed bin Salman, he is already a martyr".
President Donald Trump on Monday told reporters he wasn't satisfied with the Saudis' response to Khashoggi's death, adding, "I'm not satisfied with what I've heard".More news: Titanic II to sail original ship's doomed route in 2022