There is not yet believed to be a threat to humans, as a probe at the farm in Aberdeenshire gets underway.
The public broadcaster said there are understood to have been 16 cases in the United Kingdom since 2011, with the last in 2015.
All animals over four years of age that die on a farm are routinely tested for BSE in Scotland.
The UK death toll from BSE is now at 177 since Stephen Churchill, 19, died of a fatal brain condition linked to mad cow disease in 1995.
An investigation has been launched by the Animal Health Agency.More news: Green expected to play against Lakers in Warriors' final preseason game
The case was identified as part of routine testing and did not enter the human food chain, according to the Scottish Government.
Scotland's Chief Veterinary Officer Sheila Voas said: 'While it is too early to tell where the disease came from in this case, its detection is proof that our surveillance system is doing its job.
Panic gripped the United Kingdom in 1995 as more than four million cattle were slaughtered to stop the infection spreading. China had lifted its ban on United Kingdom beef imports following more than two decades of restrictions due to mad cow disease.
The U.S. has its own unpleasant history of mad cow disease, though.
Still, there's concern that importers will cut off purchases of British beef because of fears linked to the disease.
This is the first case in Scotland in 10 years.More news: All That Remains Guitarist Oli Herbert Dead at 44
"Consumers can be reassured that these important protection measures remain in place and that Food Standards Scotland official veterinarians and meat hygiene inspectors working in all abattoirs in Scotland will continue to ensure that in respect of BSE controls, the safety of consumers remains a priority".
Symptoms typically include a lack of co-ordination and aggression, leading it to be known as mad cow disease. In 1996, it became clear the disease can be transmitted to humans in the form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
If an Aussie contracts vCJD, it will likely be because they travelled regularly, or lived for some time in the United Kingdom from 1980 to 1996, according to the Australian Department of Health. The outbreak reached its peak in January 1993, when nearly 1,000 new cases were reported every week.
Professor Matthew Baylis, chair of veterinary epidemiology at Liverpool University, said one case was detected in Britain in 2014 and two in 2015.
This is an edited version of a story that originally appeared on The Sun.
The latest case has not affected humans.More news: Here’s why Rihanna declined to headline the Super Bowl Halftime Show