In December 2016, Manafort sent an "urgent" email to Gates including Calk and Calk's son on a list of people Manafort wanted to receive invitations to Trump's inauguration. He also testified that he pressed the firm's accountants to reclassify loans as income so the company could qualify for more bank loans or get favorable lending rates.
In blistering questioning, a defense lawyer accused the protege of former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort of being immersed in "so many lies" he can't remember them all, as he tried to undermine the credibility of the government's star witness in Manafort's fraud trial.
After Gates left the stand on Wednesday, the jury heard from Morgan Magionos, a forensic accountant with the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
The jury was reminded of the universe of vendors who've testified - the high-end suit sellers, the landscaper, the friend-turned-real-estate-agent, the general contractor - as the Federal Bureau of Investigation and IRS representatives walked through money flowing into their legitimate businesses from Manafort's foreign accounts. Gates said the money he took was sent to his account in the United Kingdom and was never disclosed to his accountants or the US government.
Numerous emails admitted into evidence Wednesday showed how Manafort personally directed wire transfers from such accounts. The charges are not related to Manafort's work with the Trump campaign. "You said you had a made mistake", the lawyer said.
The testimony bolsters the prosecution's tax-evasion case against Manafort.
The prosecution's case against Manafort doesn't rest exclusively on Gates.
It is possible Weissmann is preparing to Manafort's next trial in D.C. - which touches on issues similar to those in Virginia but delves more deeply into Manafort's work in Ukraine and the USA registration requirements associated with it. Weissmann made a filing in that case as recently as Monday.More news: Veterinarians ready for efforts to save ailing orca whale
Litman said he believed the indictment was hard to put together - "but once put together, a pretty straightforward case to prove".
"In Cyprus, they were documented as loans".
On re-direct from the prosecution, Magionos agreed that two of Manafort's signatures on the same foreign bank document appeared different - implying that he didn't always sign his name the same way.
The judge in the case, U.S. District Judge T.S. Ellis III, cut Gates off, saying, "this isn't the time for that".
Gates said he and Mr Manafort had 15 foreign accounts they did not report and they knew it was illegal.
"I'm not happy with this judge", Napolitano said on "The Daily Briefing" on Wednesday.
At times, Ellis has crossed lines, Litman said.
In detailed testimony this week, Gates has walked prosecutors through the step-by-step process on how he and Manafort doctored and backdated documents. "I'm trying to change". They expect to wrap up their case this week.More news: Kanye's 'Carpool Karaoke' cancelations have cost James Corden $45K
Throughout the trial, tensions have been evident between Ellis and prosecutors.
Gates pleaded guilty in February to conspiracy and making false statements in exchange for his testimony against Manafort and cooperation with the Special Counsel's office. Manafort's lawyers on Wednesday tried to further malign Gates as a witness by suggesting Gates lied about the number of extramarital affairs he's had.
Gates testified on Tuesday that he once had an extramarital affair that involved maintaining a London apartment.
He also said Manafort had asked him to disguise income as loans.
"This jury is just supposed to believe you after all the lies that you've told and the fraud you've committed?" asked Downing.
Downing seized on those admissions to try and cast doubt on whether the jury can trust Gates' claims that he only carried out the fraud alleged by prosecutors at Manafort's behest.
"Generally, when a person's testimony is corroborated by objective evidence - whether that be a recording, a document, or something else - it makes it hard to attack that by just attacking the witness's credibility", a former USA attorney with experience prosecuting similar fraud cases said.
"They may not like him".More news: Hall wins Women's British Open for 1st major title